path-to-regexp
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path-to-regexp

Express style path to RegExp utility

3.1.0  •  Published 2 months ago  •  by pillarjs  •  MIT License

Turn a path string such as /user/:name into a regular expression.

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Installation

npm install path-to-regexp --save

Usage

const pathToRegexp = require('path-to-regexp')

// pathToRegexp(path, keys?, options?)
// pathToRegexp.parse(path)
// pathToRegexp.compile(path)
  • path A string, array of strings, or a regular expression.
  • keys An array to populate with keys found in the path.
  • options
    • sensitive When true the regexp will be case sensitive. (default: false)
    • strict When true the regexp allows an optional trailing delimiter to match. (default: false)
    • end When true the regexp will match to the end of the string. (default: true)
    • start When true the regexp will match from the beginning of the string. (default: true)
    • delimiter The default delimiter for segments. (default: '/')
    • endsWith Optional character, or list of characters, to treat as “end” characters.
    • whitelist List of characters to consider delimiters when parsing. (default: undefined, any character)
const keys = []
const regexp = pathToRegexp('/foo/:bar', keys)
// regexp = /^\/foo\/([^\/]+?)\/?$/i
// keys = [{ name: 'bar', prefix: '/', delimiter: '/', optional: false, repeat: false, pattern: '[^\\/]+?' }]

Please note: The RegExp returned by path-to-regexp is intended for ordered data (e.g. pathnames, hostnames). It can not handle arbitrarily ordered data (e.g. query strings, URL fragments, JSON, etc).

Parameters

The path argument is used to define parameters and populate the list of keys.

Named Parameters

Named parameters are defined by prefixing a colon to the parameter name (:foo). By default, the parameter will match until the next prefix (e.g. [^/]+).

const regexp = pathToRegexp('/:foo/:bar')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', prefix: '/', ... }, { name: 'bar', prefix: '/', ... }]

regexp.exec('/test/route')
//=> [ '/test/route', 'test', 'route', index: 0, input: '/test/route', groups: undefined ]

Please note: Parameter names must use “word characters” ([A-Za-z0-9_]).

Parameter Modifiers

Optional

Parameters can be suffixed with a question mark (?) to make the parameter optional.

const regexp = pathToRegexp('/:foo/:bar?')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', ... }, { name: 'bar', delimiter: '/', optional: true, repeat: false }]

regexp.exec('/test')
//=> [ '/test', 'test', undefined, index: 0, input: '/test', groups: undefined ]

regexp.exec('/test/route')
//=> [ '/test/route', 'test', 'route', index: 0, input: '/test/route', groups: undefined ]

Tip: The prefix is also optional, escape the prefix \/ to make it required.

Zero or more

Parameters can be suffixed with an asterisk (*) to denote a zero or more parameter matches. The prefix is used for each match.

const regexp = pathToRegexp('/:foo*')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', delimiter: '/', optional: true, repeat: true }]

regexp.exec('/')
//=> [ '/', undefined, index: 0, input: '/', groups: undefined ]

regexp.exec('/bar/baz')
//=> [ '/bar/baz', 'bar/baz', index: 0, input: '/bar/baz', groups: undefined ]
One or more

Parameters can be suffixed with a plus sign (+) to denote a one or more parameter matches. The prefix is used for each match.

const regexp = pathToRegexp('/:foo+')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', delimiter: '/', optional: false, repeat: true }]

regexp.exec('/')
//=> null

regexp.exec('/bar/baz')
//=> [ '/bar/baz','bar/baz', index: 0, input: '/bar/baz', groups: undefined ]

Unnamed Parameters

It is possible to write an unnamed parameter that only consists of a matching group. It works the same as a named parameter, except it will be numerically indexed.

const regexp = pathToRegexp('/:foo/(.*)')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', ... }, { name: 0, ... }]

regexp.exec('/test/route')
//=> [ '/test/route', 'test', 'route', index: 0, input: '/test/route', groups: undefined ]

Custom Matching Parameters

All parameters can have a custom regexp, which overrides the default match ([^/]+). For example, you can match digits or names in a path:

const regexpNumbers = pathToRegexp('/icon-:foo(\\d+).png')
// keys = [{ name: 'foo', ... }]

regexpNumbers.exec('/icon-123.png')
//=> ['/icon-123.png', '123']

regexpNumbers.exec('/icon-abc.png')
//=> null

const regexpWord = pathToRegexp('/(user|u)')
// keys = [{ name: 0, ... }]

regexpWord.exec('/u')
//=> ['/u', 'u']

regexpWord.exec('/users')
//=> null

Tip: Backslashes need to be escaped with another backslash in JavaScript strings.

Parse

The parse function is exposed via pathToRegexp.parse. This will return an array of strings and keys.

const tokens = pathToRegexp.parse('/route/:foo/(.*)')

console.log(tokens[0])
//=> "/route"

console.log(tokens[1])
//=> { name: 'foo', prefix: '/', delimiter: '/', optional: false, repeat: false, pattern: '[^\\/]+?' }

console.log(tokens[2])
//=> { name: 0, prefix: '/', delimiter: '/', optional: false, repeat: false, pattern: '.*' }

Note: This method only works with strings.

Compile (“Reverse” Path-To-RegExp)

Path-To-RegExp exposes a compile function for transforming a string into a valid path.

const toPath = pathToRegexp.compile('/user/:id')

toPath({ id: 123 }) //=> "/user/123"
toPath({ id: 'café' }) //=> "/user/caf%C3%A9"
toPath({ id: '/' }) //=> "/user/%2F"

toPath({ id: ':/' }) //=> "/user/%3A%2F"
toPath({ id: ':/' }, { encode: (value, token) => value }) //=> "/user/:/"

const toPathRepeated = pathToRegexp.compile('/:segment+')

toPathRepeated({ segment: 'foo' }) //=> "/foo"
toPathRepeated({ segment: ['a', 'b', 'c'] }) //=> "/a/b/c"

const toPathRegexp = pathToRegexp.compile('/user/:id(\\d+)')

toPathRegexp({ id: 123 }) //=> "/user/123"
toPathRegexp({ id: '123' }) //=> "/user/123"
toPathRegexp({ id: 'abc' }) //=> Throws `TypeError`.
toPathRegexp({ id: 'abc' }, { validate: true }) //=> "/user/abc"

Note: The generated function will throw on invalid input. It will do all necessary checks to ensure the generated path is valid. This method only works with strings.

Working with Tokens

Path-To-RegExp exposes the two functions used internally that accept an array of tokens.

  • pathToRegexp.tokensToRegExp(tokens, keys?, options?) Transform an array of tokens into a matching regular expression.
  • pathToRegexp.tokensToFunction(tokens) Transform an array of tokens into a path generator function.

Token Information

  • name The name of the token (string for named or number for index)
  • prefix The prefix character for the segment (e.g. /)
  • delimiter The delimiter for the segment (same as prefix or default delimiter)
  • optional Indicates the token is optional (boolean)
  • repeat Indicates the token is repeated (boolean)
  • pattern The RegExp used to match this token (string)

Compatibility with Express <= 4.x

Path-To-RegExp breaks compatibility with Express <= 4.x:

  • RegExp special characters can only be used in a parameter
    • Express.js 4.x used all RegExp special characters regardless of position - this considered a bug
  • Parameters have suffixes that augment meaning - *, + and ?. E.g. /:user*
  • No wildcard asterisk (*) - use parameters instead ((.*))

TypeScript

Includes a .d.ts file for TypeScript users.

Live Demo

You can see a live demo of this library in use at express-route-tester.

License

MIT

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Popularity

Weekly Downloads
12.8M
Stars
4.5K

Maintenance

Development

Last ver 2 months ago
Created 7 years ago
Last commit 7 months ago
12 days between commits

Technology

Node version: 10.16.1
28.7K unpacked

Legal and Compliance

MIT License
OSI Approved
0 vulnerabilities

Contributors

19 contributors
Blake Embrey
Maintainer, 171 commits, 47 merges, 31 PRs
Works at opendoor-labs
TJ Holowaychuk
Maintainer, 10 commits, 3 merges
Works at Apex
Jonathan Ong
Maintainer, 3 commits, 1 merges
Works at dollarshaveclub
Forbes Lindesay
3 commits, 4 PRs
Works at ThreadsStyling
Izaak Schroeder
2 commits, 2 PRs
Aria Stewart
1 commits, 1 PRs

Tags

express
regexp
route
routing
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